Alors que la question de l’immigration de personnes constitue l’un des dossiers politiques les plus brûlants des élections législatives à venir en mai, sa transposition au meilleur ami de l’homme embrase la vénérable institution canine, dont la création remonte à l’époque victorienne.
Cette année, près de 22.000 chiens sont invités à la foire annuelle pour s’affronter lors de multiples concours de beauté et de comportement. Or 2.987 viennent de l’étranger, soit trois fois plus qu’il y a seulement six ans.
La France est le pays extérieur le plus représenté avec 377 chiens, caniches et chiots, devant l’Italie et l’Allemagne. La levée en 2001 de la quarantaine de six mois pour l’entrée des chiens au Royaume-Uni a accéléré un phénomène qui s’amplifie depuis d’année en année.
Mais cette mixité, qui s’étend à des pays comme la Malaisie, l’Argentine et les Bermudes, ne plaît pas à tout le monde. Le Daily Telegraph a interrogé plusieurs propriétaires britanniques qui, sous couvert d’anonymat, dénoncent une « invasion » et crient à l’injustice, puisque ces chiens étrangers ont été dressés d’une « autre manière » et adoptent un comportement « différent » aux concours.
Ils pointent les « différences culturelles », en particulier avec les Etats-Unis, où les propriétaires emploient des professionnels pour pomponner leurs chiens à grand renfort de laque pour cheveux, alors qu’en Grande-Bretagne les propriétaires sont le plus souvent des retraités.
En 2014, deux des sept principaux prix ont été remportés par des chiens étrangers: « James », un lévrier d’Irlande venu de Belgique et « Colin », un spitz nain de Pologne.
Certains craignent aussi que l’ouverture à l’étranger exacerbe la concurrence et pousse à franchir la ligne rouge aux Crufts, où tous les coups semblent parfois permis.
En 2004, un Doberman est ainsi tombé malade juste avant son show parce que quelqu’un avait mélangé un sédatif à sa viande, selon son propriétaire.
D’autres techniques, explorées par le Times vendredi, consistent à coller du chewing gum dans les poils du chien et de mettre un laxatif dans sa gamelle.
La manoeuvre la plus perfide consiste sans doute à glisser une chienne en chaleur au milieu d’un concours, sans masquer son odeur par un spray à l’eucalyptus, afin de faire perdre tous les moyens et ses bonnes manières aux mâles si patiemment dressés.
Contrairement aux shows américains, où les propriétaires peuvent repartir avec des milliers de dollars, les prix aux Crufts rapportent à peine une centaine de livres. Mais la descendance des chiens récompensés peut ensuite se négocier au prix fort. Et le prestige est immense.
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The biggest dog show in the world!
Over 31,000 dogs set to visit Leipzig
With the record number of 24,692 total entries, the World Dog Show taking place from 9–12 November in Leipzig is not just the biggest dog show in the world, but the largest that has ever been held in the history of the World Canine Organisation (FCI).
It will be the cynological highlight of the year. Over 31,000 dogs from 73 nations will come together in Leipzig for the world’s most important breed shows. The judges will be looking for dogs in robust health and with exemplary behaviour that epitomize the functions of their breeds. The victors will carry off coveted titles – especially the World Winner.
The Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) assigns the World Dog Show to a different member country each year. The 2017 edition of the show was originally set to take place in Ecuador, but that plan had to be abandoned after the earthquake there in 2016. The VDH stepped into the breach and had just about sixteen months to organise the World Dog Show.
In light of the haste involved, the organisers in Germany are all the more delighted by the record-breaking number of entries they have received.
“We weren’t expecting a show here to attract such a gigantic response,” VDH President Professor Peter Friedrich comments, “and we are honoured to find ourselves now hosting the biggest ever show in the history of the FCI.”
That record had previously been held by the World Dog Show in Paris with 21,588 entries. The VDH is well used to organising major events; this is the seventh World Dog Show to have been held in Germany since 1935.
In addition to the World Dog Show with its 24,692 competitors, the VDH is also organizing a jam-packed programme of fringe events at the Leipzig Trade Fair. The ball will get rolling on 8 November with the German Winner Show. 6,423 dogs are entered for the show and dog lovers will also be enthralled by various dog sport events. 110 dogs will compete in the Dog
Dancing World Championships in the Heelwork to Music and Freestyle categories. The German Agility Championships and an international agility tournament with over 350 competitors will be held and so will the European Dog Diving Championships.
Juniors will also have opportunities to test their mettle in Leipzig. In the Junior Handling World Championships, juniors from 35 countries will demonstrate how to present dogs correctly.
The programme of fringe events offers a tremendous mix of information and entertainment and will feature some top-class stars. Police dogs and hunting and herding dogs will show off their skills in the large arena with 1,800 seats in Hall 1, and attractive modern sports will be represented in the form of dog frisbee and flyball.
Visitors interested in getting a dog of their own can chat to people at 48 different information stands manned by breed societies and various dog breeds will also be presented on an event stage.
Dogs will be spoiled for culinary choices at more than 185 pet food stands where representatives from the sector will present their various nibbles, treats and varieties of food. A huge range of dog supplies and accessories will also be on offer at Leipzig Trade Fair – from leashes and care products to beds.
The World Dog Show and the German Winner Show are being held at Leipzig Trade Fair from 8–12 November. The show will take place in a total of five halls with 85,000 square metres of exhibition space and will be open to visitors from 9.00 a.m. to 7 p.m. daily. Tickets and further information available online from www.wds2017.de
History of Crufts
Crufts is the greatest dog event in the world! Organised by The Kennel Club, the show celebrates every aspect of the role that dogs play in our lives.
Crufts has changed in ways that couldn’t possibly have been imagined when the show was set up in Victorian times by the late Charles Cruft. Although it was a very different event in 1891, Charles Cruft was a great showman and would surely have enjoyed the size and scope of the event today, which has become an essential date in any dog lover’s calendar.
The dog show is still an important part of the event, celebrating the unique relationship that dogs share with their owners. Judges are trained to ensure that only healthy dogs win prizes, which in turn encourages the breeding of healthy dogs.
Crufts and The Kennel Club make a difference for dogs
The aim of The Kennel Club is to promote in every way the general improvement of dogs. The Kennel Club team works hard behind the scenes to achieve this aim and also towards ‘making a difference for dogs’.
We are: the UK’s largest organisation dedicated to the health and welfare of dogs.
Our objective: The Kennel Club of today holds within it the broadest remit to protect and promote the general wellbeing of dogs. At its heart are programmes and investments in education and health initiatives which lead to happy, healthy dogs living long lives with responsible owners.
A celebration of dogs
Crufts is ultimately a celebration of all dogs. It celebrates working dogs, which are fit and healthy enough to perform the jobs for which they were originally bred, such as those in the gamekeeper classes or which line up for the police dog team operational and humanitarian action of the year award. Crufts also hails hero dogs through the Friends for Life competition.
Rescue dogs are celebrated in the rescue dog agility competition and the speed and agility of dogs is celebrated in the ever-popular competitions of flyball and heelwork to music.For prospective dog owners and dog lovers, Crufts is a prime opportunity to talk to Kennel Club Assured Breeders, rescue charities and breed experts about how to responsibly buy, train and enjoy life with your dog. And of course, with hundreds of trade stands selling anything and everything for dogs and dog lovers, it is a shopping extravaganza!
How it all started
Crufts is named after its founder Charles Cruft. In 1876, a young Charles left college with no desire to join the family jewellery business. Instead he took employment with James Spratt who had set up a new venture in Holborn, London selling ‘dog cakes’.
Charles Cruft was ambitious and a relatively short apprenticeship as an office boy led to a promotion to travelling salesman. This brought him into contact with large estates and sporting kennels. His next career move with Spratts saw him travelling to Europe and here in 1878, French dog breeders, perhaps seeing entrepreneurial talents in Cruft, invited him to organise the promotion of the canine section of the Paris Exhibition. He was still just two years out of college.
Back in England in 1886 he took up the management of the Allied Terrier Club Show at the Royal Aquarium, Westminster. It was in 1891 that the first Cruft’s show was booked into the Royal Agricultural Hall in Islington and it has evolved and grown ever since.
Diagnosing food allergies in dogs and catsBring your case to trial
A German shepherd with recurring pyoderma. A Siamese cat with pruritus and alopecia. A golden retriever with otitis and diarrhea. These are animals potentially suffering from food allergies-and they may also be your patients.
Dogs and cats can become allergic to any food they are exposed to. A common misconception about food allergy is that it is likely to develop after a recent diet change. In fact, food allergies can develop at any time. Many studies suggest food allergy develops in young dogs (less than 1 year of age) more frequently than atopic dermatitis.1 The most common allergens in dogs (beef, chicken, chicken egg, cow milk, wheat, soy, corn) and cats (chicken, fish, dairy) are also common ingredients in many commercial dog and cat foods.1,2
Clinical signs in dogs
No age predisposition exists for food allergic dogs, but many exhibit clinical signs before they are 1 year old. Clinical signs include nonseasonal pruritus, otitis, dermatitis, eosinophilic vasculitis, recurring pyoderma, seborrhea or urticaria. Nearly half of my food allergy patients have gastrointestinal signs. These signs may include vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence or more than two bowel movements a day.
Rarely reported clinical signs of adverse food reactions include seizures and respiratory signs, including bronchitis, rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.1
It is also possible for the effects of a food allergy to be low or below the “itch threshold” and only observe flares of pruritus with the addition of environmental allergens during high pollen seasons.
Clinical signs in cats
The classic clinical sign for food allergy in cats is pruritus, especially of the head and ears. Other signs will manifest as self-induced alopecia or any manifestation of the eosinophilic granuloma complex.
Diagnosing a food allergy
Several clues may raise the index of suspicion that a patient is suffering from a food allergy. One is the pattern of skin disease. Food allergies are known to commonly affect the ears and rears of dogs. Also, the clinical signs of food allergy are usually nonseasonal, but they could be episodic if due to sporadic treat administration.
Another potentially useful clue is the response to corticosteroids, or even occlacitinib (Apoquel-Zoetis). Atopic dermatitis is usually responsive to these drugs at anti-inflammatory doses. When pruritus is not corticosteroid-responsive, a food allergy should be considered (of course, just because pruritus responds to corticosteroids does not rule out the possibility that the patient has a food allergy).
Definitively diagnosing a food allergy in a dog or cat is a challenge. Intradermal allergy testing, serology testing and skin patch testing all produce unreliable results. An elimination diet trial is the only accurate method to identify a food allergy.
Performing an elimination diet trial
Step 1: Choose the trial diet
There is no foolproof, works-every-time test diet. Choosing the best diet to feed a suspected food-allergic patient requires choosing a diet:
1) that consists of proteins the patient has not been exposed to
2) that has minimal chance of cross reactions with previously fed proteins (for example, some patients allergic to beef will cross-react or show clinical signs when exposed to other ruminants, chicken may cross react with duck or turkey)
3) that is palatable to the patient
4) that the owner is able and willing to feed.
Because of these factors, rabbit, kangaroo and occasionally fish have historically been the first diet of choice for most suspected food-allergic patients. However, most of these ingredients are now found in over-the-counter (OTC) foods. In addition, because of difficulty in supplying a dependable quantity of novel proteins, some manufacturers have been forced to add hydrolyzed proteins, particularly hydrolyzed soy, to the novel protein diets.
Novel vs. hydrolyzed protein
Hydrolyzed protein diets are another option for the elimination diet trial, and clearly the wave of the future. There are conflicting studies on the effectiveness of hydrolyzed diets for allergic patients, with anywhere from 10% to 40% of patients allergic to the basic protein continuing to show clinical signs on a hydrolyzed version of the same protein.³
Currently commercial options include hydrolyzed soy, chicken, feathers and salmon. None of these proteins are necessarily novel. The degree of hydrolysis can vary, and, presumably, the greater the hydrolysis and the smaller the resulting protein or amino acid, the better the chance a food allergic patient will improve. At this time, since hydrolyzed diets are often the only option, it is still best to try and choose a hydrolyzed diet to which the patient has had little or limited exposure to the parent protein.
A recent study in 10 dogs known to be allergic to chicken protein resulted in four of 10 dogs flaring when fed a hydrolyzed chicken-liver based diet, but none of the dogs flared when fed a very finely hydrolyzed diet consisting of poultry feathers.4 Recently a hydrolyzed salmon diet has been made commercially available and provides another feeding option. Additional clinical trials and field experience are needed, but samples I’ve submitted to an independent laboratory performing ELISA testing found no trace of poultry, beef, pork, soy or dairy products.
In-house therapeutic vs. OTC diets
Although there is a plethora of OTC novel protein diets available, when analyzed, many of these diet have been shown to include additional ingredients not listed on the label.5 In this day of instant online access to information and products, most patients arrive at our office having already been fed one or many OTC diets with supposedly limited and novel protein diets. Yet when we read the label together (available online), we may find ingredients such as “animal digest,” or other proteins that are hardly novel! I advise clients that therapeutic diets are more expensive for a reason-they are “more pure.”
Patients do not have to eat the therapeutic diet indefinitely. Once the food-allergic patient is stable, the client can potentially “work backward” and challenge the patient with an OTC novel protein diet and monitor for a flare (whereas improvement on a diet may require weeks, most patients flare within days or even hours of being fed the offending food).
Step 2: Start the trial diet and treat infections
Start the patient on the elimination diet trial. This diet should be the only food the patient receives. Remind owners that means no treats, chewable medications or protein-based supplements. I typically recommend owners switch the food completely and abruptly rather than transition slowly (giving half a bowl of new food and half a bowl of old food). If food is truly the problem, it has never made sense to me to give “half the problem” during the transition.
During the food trial, it is important to treat secondary infections (such as pyoderma and Malassezia species infections). It is not uncommon for patients to receive antimicrobial therapy for potentially the first half of the food trial. This may offer a challenge as owners will be limited to what the medications can be hidden in since products such as meats, cheese or pill pockets cannot be used. It may be possible to treat infections with injectable long-lasting antibiotics, or even more preferably, with topical antimicrobial products such as shampoos, wipes, sprays or foam.
Apply flea control in flea-endemic areas to minimize other causes of pruritus, preferably using topical or pour-on products and avoiding chewable products.
Client communication tips for those follow-ups
It’s always difficult to determine the best way to recommend and then charge for rechecks and not have clients balk. We asked Karen Felsted, CPA, MS, DVM, CVPM, her thoughts specifically on food allergy trial rechecks, which she thinks should be charged no differently than anything else.
“Rechecks are tricky because we don’t do a good enough job educating why the recheck is necessary,” says Dr. Felsted. “The term ‘recheck’ means nothing to pet owners. What you need to say is, ‘We need to have Fluffy back in two weeks to see her ears and skin and make sure the food trial is making a difference.’”
And Dr. Felsted says not to couch the recheck in vague clinical terminology either. “The term ‘medical progress exam’-even saying that right now, it sounds like a pet owner will think it’s a great way to get him or her back in for another $30. It’s better to be specific about the need for a recheck, not focus on the word itself. Say, ‘Here’s what we want to look at. We want to peer down at the eardrum, look for swelling and redness’-whatever it is you’re looking for. »
Step 3: Follow up one week later
Have a team member call the pet owner after one week to make sure that the elimination diet trial has been started. Answer any questions that have come up in the last week.
Step 4: Check the patient’s progress after six weeks
After six weeks, check on the patient’s progress. If the patient is improving, discuss continuing the trial for another six weeks for maximum improvement or introducing a long-term maintenance diet, such as an OTC novel protein diet (only if the owner desires a switch).
If the patient has not improved, remind owners that this is just the first step. Now is the time to problem solve any obstacles encountered during the first elimination diet trial and discover any sneaky saboteurs that the owners might have overlooked. The ones I commonly encounter include:
Owners fed the patient an appropriate test diet but continued to feed treats.
Small children at home dropped food that the patient ate.
Unsupportive family members in the home gave the patient non-elimination diet food because they didn’t think it would make a difference.
The patient snuck a few bites from another dog’s food bowl.
The patient received medication or supplements with beef- or pork-based additives or flavoring.
If the elimination diet trial appears to have been performed correctly but the patient did not improve, then the patient is likely suffering from atopic dermatitis and reacting to environmental allergens. Since this life-long condition cannot be cured, or avoided, long-term control is necessary. Many new drugs are available for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, as well as non-drug options such as allergen specific immunotherapy. If an owner is interested in allergen specific immunotherapy, it is probably time to refer the patient to a veterinary dermatologist unless the practitioner has a solid working knowledge of aeroallergens and immunotherapy and the skills to correlate allergy specific immunotherapy with the patient’s history and clinical signs.
1. Carlotti DN. Cutaneous manifestations of food hypersensitivity. In: Veterinary allergy. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2014;108-114.
2. Jeffers JG, Meyer EK, Sosis EJ. Responses of dogs with food allergies to single-ingredient dietary provocation. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:608-611.
3. Olivry T, Bizikova. A systematic review of the evidence of reduced allergenicity and clinical benefit of food hydrolysates in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions. Vet Dermatol 2010;21:31-40.
4. Bizikova P, Olivry T. A randomized, double-blinded crossover trial testing the benefit of two hydrolyzed poultry-based commercial diets for dogs with spontaneous pruritic chicken allergy. Vet Dermatol 2016;27:289-293.
5. Raditic DM, Remillard RL, Tater KC. ELISA testing for common food antigens in four dry dog foods used in dietary elimination trials. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2011;95:90-97.
A 16-year-old young man presented to the emergency room with new-onset generalised tonic-clonic seizures. Examination showed a Glasgow score of 13 and predominantly crural left hemiparesis. Imaging demonstrated a right frontoparietal haemorrhage of non-vascular origin with perilesional oedema. Surgical drainage was carried out, but rebleeding occurred within 24 hours following surgery, and again 1 week after discharge. On reinterrogation and examination, Ehrlichia canis infection was suspected and empirical management with doxycycline was begun. Improvement was evident 72 hours after antibiotic initiation, and PCR confirmed the diagnosis; thus, doxycycline was continued for 6 months. After 2 years, seizures recurred and treatment was reinstated with good clinical response. However, seizures reappeared whenever treatment discontinuation was attempted. Lacking alternatives, doxycycline was maintained up to the third year following the initial episode. Subsequently, the patient showed complete resolution without neurological sequelae up to his last follow-up visit, 12 months following treatment cessation.